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Fading Basics: Narrow Band, Wide Band, and Spatial Channels


Radio technologies have undergone increasingly rapid evolutionary changes in the recent past. The first cellular phones used narrow-band FM modulation, which was soon replaced by digital modulation in second & third generation devices. Today, multiple-antenna systems are being employed to increase data rates. These provide improved quality while decreasing operational costs.

This white paper guides a reader through the basic concepts of fading and into some critical RF-related topics such as:

  • Fading Models

  • Flat Fading

  • Frequency-Selectivity

  • Multi-path Delays and Delay Spread

  • Multiple antennas

  • Wide band Channels

  • Shadowing

  • Channel Modeling and MIMO Capacity

There are two more White Papers in this series available for download:

Correlation-Based Spatial Channel Modeling

Path-Based Spatial Channel ModelingRight arrow icon

Download the White Paper